Power cables generate heat,Â and heat affects resistivity and current-carrying capacity. We specialize in commissioning, start up, and maintenance testing for Utility, Industrial, Transit, Data Centers, and Commercial Facilities. Emergency systems including generators,Â fuel systems,Â alarms, andÂ automatic transfer switchesÂ (also seeÂ. The inspection and testing performed on an electrical power system and its components before the initial energization is key to lifecycle reliability. A visual check at VT (voltage transformer) circuits, all the links to â¦ Electrical commissioning is essential to the start up of any electrical system for the first time, regardless of size or industry. Electric Power Systems is a NETA Certified, Independent Electrical Testing & Engineering Organization. Figure 2: Contractors are preparing to perform partial discharges testing on underground medium-voltage cables to verify insulation integrity. Clamp meter. 3. This phase also can be broken down into three steps for commissioning: 1. Level 2:Â Site-acceptanceÂ inspection:Â When the equipment arrives onsite, it is inspected to confirm it meets specified requirements. However, consulting engineers may wish to specify additionalÂ âfactoryÂ witness testing.âÂ This additional witness testing permitsÂ the consulting engineer to perform preinstallationÂ inspection of the equipment andÂ request simulated functional testingÂ performed by the manufacturer.Â Often,Â witness testing is only required for large or complicated electrical equipmentÂ and for mission critical projects.Â Witness inspectionsÂ canÂ include confirmation ofÂ equipmentÂ dimensionsÂ and weights,Â properÂ nameplates and labels,Â locations and sizes of conduit openings,Â communication wiringÂ points,Â andÂ cableÂ lugÂ configurations.Â Functional witness testing may include simulatedÂ sequencesÂ ofÂ operations,Â such asÂ start-upsÂ and load transfers,Â fault conditions,Â load loss,Â and alarms and display information. The construction phase is when the systems are manufactured, inspected, tested, and installed in accordance with the construction documents. Electrical testing has become a key component in all modern electrical equipment and installations.Â It has expanded beyond the key foundations forÂ equipmentÂ safety to include performance, operations, and energy requirementsÂ for electricalÂ facilities. All of the on-site commissioning test procedures and checklists are developed, and the commissioning schedule is coordinated with the construction schedule. Soils testing:Â Often overlooked by electrical engineersÂ is the option toÂ specify soils testing for conductivity and thermal resistivity. 4. For example, phased construction may require additional load bank connections and/or isolation breakers to allow for testing without affecting those portions of the facility already online. Courtesy: SmithGroup. ASHRAE Guideline 0-2005, “The Commissioning Process,” breaks down the process into the following phases: Although this guideline was developed for the commissioning of HVAC systems, it is a very comprehensive description of the commissioning process, and the phases it outlines can be used as the basis for commissioning on-site electrical systems. Introduction: The safe and efficient operation of modern electrical equipment and control systems requires the successful testing, start-up and commissioning of this equipment, or system, to ensure correct operation, plus; In the operation phase, installed equipment and systems are tested to verify and ensure that they perform in accordance with the design intent and owner’s operational requirements. Software, e.g. Commissioning is a process, and in order to maximize commissioning success, it must begin in the pre-design phase of a project and continue through construction until that final verification is executed. Motor nameplate details (Rated voltage, full load current, and rated RPM). TheÂ ANSI/NETA ATSÂ standardÂ includesÂ procedures for testing many parts of the electrical system including: While itÂ is possibleÂ that some,Â orÂ all, ofÂ these tests could be performed by the installing contractor, there is a benefit to the consulting engineer and the owner toÂ useÂ aÂ third-partyÂ testing agency who can independently assessÂ that electricalÂ equipmentÂ compliesÂ with the engineer’sÂ design and specification documentsÂ andÂ hasÂ been installed toÂ meet all codes.Â It is beneficial for the engineer to specify that this third-party testing firm is an accredited memberÂ withÂ documented and verified experience and abilities to objectively validate the electrical system. Electrical monitoring systems are making even greater stridesÂ with leading-edge systemsÂ thatÂ are âawareâ of occupant use and traffic, adjusting light levels to constant illumination levels and energy use. Review building operation within 10 months after substantial completion. The commissioning agent also may be responsible for overseeing the factory testing, confirming that the results meet the acceptance criteria, and documenting any deficiencies. Additional work may include relay-Â and protective-device settings. Commissioning of the HVAC system includes all systems, including fire, life, safety and controls. Many crucial decisions made during the design phase impacted the operation of the facility and commissioning. Integrated system test. Developing the commissioning plan early in the project was vital in providing guidance on how to design and build the facility so that the later phases of construction could be tested and validated without affecting the portion that was already online. Today we have numerous requirements and optional recommended practices for testing and commissioning electrical systems. During design, electrical engineers will design loads across aÂ 3-phaseÂ system, typically on panelboard schedules, to be relatively balanced among each phase.Â NFPA 70:Â National Electrical CodeÂ (NEC),Â Article 210.11 (B),Â discussesÂ unbalanced loadingÂ on panels,Â and Article 220.61Â discussesÂ unbalanced loading onÂ neutralÂ conductors.Â Overheating, power-quality issues, and energy loss can occur with unbalanced loads.Â During construction, however,Â loads often change fromÂ what is inÂ original design documents,Â andÂ it is good practice to specifyÂ final load balance testing. A system-oriented commissioning programme related to a system (or group of systems) â¢ All the tests that are necessary for proving the safety and the performance of the plant and the logical sequence of those tests â¢ Test procedures for each of the specified tests. It also discusses field testing of all the major components of an electrical system such as motors, generators, switchgear, protection and control, UPS and battery systems. In this phase, the on-site commissioning plan is finalized. Courtesy: SmithGroup. Introduction. Electrical Commissioning - This 12-Hour live online instructor-led Electrical Testing and Commissioning Training course covers practices and procedures that are essential to the safe start up of any electrical system for the first time, regardless of its size, type or industry. Develop or approve a monitoring-based commissioning plan. Search Products And Discover New Innovations In Your Industry, Brian Rener, PE, LEED AP, SmithGroup, ChicagoÂ. Develop or approve construction checklists. AÂ companion standard for post-occupancyÂ testingÂ isÂ calledÂ ANSI NETA MTS 2015:Â Standard for Maintenance Testing Specifications for Electrical Power Equipment and Systems. For example, in the first step the power distribution unit, UPS, and switchgear are tested as individual components. The operational phase was split into multiple sections because of the phased construction. Commissioning is the systematic process by which a piece of equipment, system, or facility is tested to verify that it functions in accordance with the design intent and owner’s operational requirements. Witness at least a portion of the electrical systemâsÂ functional testing. Understand the differences betweenÂ electrical testing and commissioning. Critical facilities like data centers, call centers, and hospitals have more complex electrical distribution, standby, or emergency generation and other backup systems than a standard office facility, and therefore will require a more comprehensive commissioning scope. Commissioning of the electrical system includes lighting controls, emergency power and limited connection and grounding checks. After successful completion of the visual inspection, electrical and functionality tests are performed on the individual piece of equipment to verify operation. Develop or approve systemâs manual updates and delivery. Soils vary greatlyÂ byÂ region.Â Soil conditionsÂ alsoÂ vary over seasonal time frames, rain, drought, and the application of landscaping materials and chemicals.Â NECÂ ArticleÂ 250 discusses the need to achieve a maximum earth ground of 25 ohms. The data center commissioning process isÂ commonlyÂ expressed in levels. However, there is an important need to continueÂ IRÂ testing after occupancy,Â as prescribed in NFPA 70B.Â OnÂ complex primary electricalÂ equipment,Â itÂ isÂ now common to require IR âportsâ or windows in theÂ gear to allow for IR scanning while the gear is operationalÂ andÂ without removing coversÂ (seeÂ Figure 4). Knowledge of and experience with the operation of the electrical equipment. ForÂ a facility to effectively and reliably operateÂ initially and over its lifespan,Â it is important to consider post-occupancy commissioning and testing. This phase also can be broken down into three steps for commissioning: The first step tests each piece of equipment separately to ensure that it functions correctly before testing the equipment as an electrical system. Due to the complexity of the electrical systems, the manufacturer developed a simulator for testing. By the end of this online training course, participants will be able to: Design, install, commission, test, operate, control and maintain HV/MV substations in a professional manner Supervisory control and data acquisition systems. The owner estimated that the cost to recover from losing power to the critical load during the migration would have been $5 million. Electrical Commissioning Start-up Testing. During this integrated system test, the mechanical, control, and life safety systems should be incorporated to evaluate the true operation of the facility’s combined systems. A standard provision of the enhanced commissioningÂ under the LEED rating systemÂ isÂ for theÂ CxAÂ to return to theÂ facility after 10 months of operation. For safety, it is recommended that those performing the commissioning follow the industry standards regarding use of the proper personal protective equipment in accordance with the hazard risk category determined by the arc flash analysis. References for inspecting and testing electrical distribution equipment are: • ANSI C37.50—Low-Voltage AC Power Circuit Breakers Used in Enclosures—Test Procedures, • IEEE 450—Recommended Practice for Maintenance, Testing and Replacement of Vented Lead Acid Batteries for Stationary Applications, • IEEE 1188—Recommended Practice for Maintenance, Testing and Replacement of Valve Regulated Lead Acid Batteries for Stationary Applications, • NEMA AB4—Guidelines for Inspection and Preventive Maintenance of Molded Case Circuit Breakers Used in Commercial and Industrial Applications, • NETA ATS—Acceptance Testing Specifications for Electrical Power Distribution Equipment and Systems, • NFPA 70B—Recommended Practice for Electrical Equipment Maintenance, • NFPA 70E—Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, • NFPA 110—Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems, • NFPA 111—Standard for Stored Energy Emergency and Standby Power Systems, Search Products And Discover New Innovations In Your Industry. It is the responsibility of the commissioning agent to confirm that the factory testing procedures are adequate or develop additional testing procedures to ensure that the equipment operates as required to meet the design intent. Factory testing provides the design team and commissioning agent with an opportunity to inspect and test the functional operation of the equipment before it arrives on-site. The electrical system reacted properly and transferred the critical load to the redundant standby power system. Currently,Â bothÂ IEEEÂ andÂ NFPAÂ recommend an earth ground resistance of 5 ohms or less. Field instrument â¦ The commissioning agent’s role in the design phase is to review and comment on the construction documents to verify that the goals and requirements set forth in the pre-design are being met. Electrical engineers should coordinate with their civil or structural engineering team members to include these electrical tests. It is vital that the O&M personnel be involved in all testing so that they can gain experience with the systems. The client decided to spend extra money in redundant backup systems. The data center’s design was based on an isolated redundant-type system with a primary distribution system for each section of the data center, and a redundant distribution system to back up the primary systems. In each phase of construction, the individual pieces of equipment were tested; the discrete systems required to bring that particular phase online were then tested. Problems did occur in each phase of testing (defective breakers, interaction of systems during a failure, coordination issues with inrush, etc.). ), as well as converter stations. The first step tests each piece of equipment separately to ensure that it functions correctly before testing the equipment as an electrical system. Beyond NETA/NFPAÂ start-up acceptance,Â emergency generators require weekly inspection and monthly testing. In addition, the arc flash analysis and coordination study were reviewed, and all protection device trip settings were verified. Commissioning of the Electrical Systems are an integral part of this Section. Outstanding punch points should be resolved before routine operation. Search Products And Discover New Innovations In Your Industry!! Maintaining, testing, and inspection a proper grounding system for the electrical power substation; What are the Goals? According to NETA,Â this document âwas developed for use by those responsible for the continued operation of existing electrical systems and equipment to guide them in specifying and performing the necessary tests to ensure that these systems and apparatus perform satisfactorily, minimizing downtime and maximizing life expectancy.â. The month after the facility was fully commissioned, the owner started a worldwide migration to the new facility. This standard is intended to verify the safe and proper operation of PV systems, and to serve as a guide for designers, installers and service personnel. Beyond testing individual electrical equipment components,Â there is aÂ need to verifyÂ thatÂ installedÂ electrical systemsÂ matchÂ design documents,Â construction submittals,Â andÂ ownerâsÂ projectÂ requirementsÂ (OPR),Â and to document functional performance testing.Â Electrical commissioning mayÂ be optional or requiredÂ depending on the code or certifications required by the project. Data centersÂ are anotherÂ type ofÂ mission critical facility with some of the moreÂ rigorous requirements for commissioning electrical power systems. Make sure that the following documents and instruments are ready before the start of commissioning process. Once the new primary systems were installed, they had to be tested and commissioned around a live data center. The need for testing and commissioning electrical equipment and systems varies by project, client, system, and building codes. With the proliferation of theÂ internetÂ ofÂ thingsÂ (IoT)Â and standardized building automation protocols,Â such as BACnet and Modbus, it is easier to integrate electrical power monitoring systems (EPMS) into aÂ facility wideÂ maintenance and test system.Â Common power-use meters can help track andÂ recordÂ loading and energy use,Â alertingÂ owners to potential capacity issues or even low-load inefficiencies.Â Energy-performance verification is an important part of post-occupancy and may even be required in certain projectsâsuch as data centers,Â where it is used to trackÂ power-usageÂ effectiveness (PUE)âand for LEEDÂ or ASHRAEÂ complianceÂ whereÂ fuel sources and end usesÂ are metered independently. The owner required that a portion of the data center be live, serving critical load before the entire facility could be completed. The owner’s pre-design requirement was for a data center facility that had a concurrently maintainable infrastructure with fault-tolerant critical systems. A cost-benefit comparison is usually warranted on how much of the electrical system should be specified to be tested toÂ ANSI/NETA ATS.Â The consulting engineer may wish to confine the testing to certain parts of the system,Â such as emergency or standby systems,Â or may wish to limit the testing to certain voltage levels or amperage ratings.Â A discussion with the building owner can also help in defining the limits of NETA testing. Once all phases of construction were completed, the entire facility was turned over for integrated systems testing, where a “black start” test was conducted with multiple failure scenarios (loss of generator, loss of primary backup system, UPS failure, etc.). receiving, distribution, etc. While some data centers will also pursue LEED certification, the commissioning process is much more extensive and includes many of the testing requirements identifiedÂ here. For example, the owner preferred to have two sources of power to this facility, but only one medium-voltage source was available in the area. The more complex and critical the electrical system becomes and the greater the exposure to risk involved with loss of power, the more crucial it is to commission the system and verify that it will operate as designed. It does not include infrared scanning, power quality, switchgear, transformer, or low voltage system testing. Systems with automated (often programmable logic) controls and interlocks should be given special attention to ensure that the design documents include sufficient operational details, such as timer presets/ranges and operational sequences for all operational modes. 2.2 Types of PV Systems 12 3 System Documentation 14 4 Commissioning PV Systems 16 4.1 Final Installation Checkout 16 4.2 Visual Inspection 16 4.2.1 Labels and Markings 18 5 System Testing and Measurements 19 5.1 Continuity Testing 20 5.2 Polarity Testing 23 5.3 Voltage and Current Testing 24 5.3.1 Open-Circuit Voltage Testing 25 Know about the code requirements for testing and commissioning. TESTING AND COMMISSIONING Power-Tech Engineers has extensive experience in the testing of electrical systems and equipment in electrical utility facilities, including all types of generating stations, substations (e.g. Once equipment is installed, Electrical Testing Solutions will perform visual, mechanical, and electrical tests to help ensure trouble-free energizing of the equipment. FAT report (If required). Anne Bradley, Julia Janaro and Megan Chorley, By Brian Rener, PE, LEED AP, SmithGroup, ChicagoÂ, National Electrical Manufacturers Association, IEEE 400-2012:Â IEEE Guide for Field Testing and Evaluation of the Insulation of Shielded Power Cable Systems Rated 5 kV and Above, ANSI/NETA ATS-2017:Â Standard forÂ AcceptanceÂ TestingÂ Specifications for Electrical Power Equipment and Systems, NFPA 110: Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems, American Society for Healthcare Engineering (ASHE) Healthcare Facility Commissioning Guidelines, ASHRAE 90.1: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings, ANSI NETA MTS 2015:Â Standard for Maintenance Testing Specifications for Electrical Power Equipment and Systems, Weekly merger and acquisition update: December 4, 2020, Top 5 Consulting-Specifying Engineer articles: November 27 to December 3, 2020, Best practices in science, technology office design, Multi-family housing design trends driven by COVID-19, Consulting-Specifying Engineer most-viewed articles, November 2020, Ask an expert: Justin Garner provides input on COVID-19, Virtual reality challenges, solutions for A/E firms. The most common electrical integrated system test is a simulated site-wide power outage, also known as the “black start” test. 5. The consulting engineer should consider the project type, client, building codes, and desired outcomesÂ when specifying electrical testing. Electrical Systems 1.0%-1.5% of electrical system cost Energy Efficiency Measures $0.23-$0.28 per square foot * Displays the individual average costs associated with Commissioning various scopes and systems with respect to the entire construction cost, system cost, or square footage. It is also imperative that periodic testing and/or re-commissioning of an existing electrical system be performed to help ensure that it continues to operate per the design intent. Through the use of the simulator, various failure scenarios were tested and the control sequence was modified so that the system operated per the requirements of the owner. Load balancing is another electrical test that is specifiedÂ by consulting engineers. A review of shop drawings submittals for all major electrical equipment provides the design team and the commissioning agent with the opportunity to confirm that the manufacturers are providing the equipment as specified and that the systems meet the design intent. It is importantÂ toÂ understand the code differences between emergency classified systems (fire pumps, egress lighting),Â legally requiredÂ standbyÂ generator loads,Â andÂ optionalÂ standby. InformationÂ alsoÂ is criticalÂ forÂ future renovations and expansions,Â as consulting engineers can determineÂ theÂ ability to add new loads to existing systems. Develop or approve system test procedures. Develop or approve an ongoing commissioning plan. Commissioning Procedure Commissioning is the overall performance testing of the facility and its systems such as HVAC, pumps, piping, and lighting. Figure 1: Testing agents are shown communicating with remote chiller operations during commissioning of new medium-voltage switchgear to verify proper operations. Because the commissioning agent was involved in the pre-design discussions, he was aware of the owner’s expectations. ICAPS, to record commissioning progress and capture the test results 2- Mechanical completion (When taking the systems from construction team) 3- P & ID checking (Commissioning team verify everything installed in site according to spec & drawings) Search Products And Discover New Innovations In Your Industry!! Commissioning procedures and checklists were written. ManufacturerÂ fieldÂ tests:Â More commonly specifiedÂ thanÂ factory witness testsÂ are requirements for the electrical equipmentÂ manufacturer toÂ requireÂ factory-trainedÂ techniciansÂ toÂ perform additional testingÂ and adjustmentsÂ in the fieldÂ during or after installation.Â Often,Â largerÂ and/orÂ complex electrical equipment is shipped in parts,Â and havingÂ aÂ factory-authorizedÂ technicianÂ onsite toÂ test equipment after the contractor has installed it can be helpful. Sample forms have been included. This includesÂ theÂ review of any protective-device settings, automatic controls and functions, remote communications or controls, and more. In the design phase, the owner’s requirements are translated into construction documents. Proper commissioning and start-up testing also provide a valuable baseline or benchmark that can be used to â¦ The commissioning scope will be dictated by the type and size of the facility. In the past, the primary focus of commissioning has been on HVAC systems, but because of the need for increased electrical system reliability and complexity, owners are now starting to realize the importance and benefits of commissioning on-site electrical systems. An effectiveÂ grounding system is one of the more critical factors for a trouble-free and safe electrical system. ANSI NETA MTS 2015Â is an excellent resourceÂ for ongoing testing as part of a preventive maintenance program in a facility.Â ItÂ also provides electrical engineers with an excellent resource to specify electrical tests on equipment that may not have been maintained prior to renovations or expansions of existing facilities.Â For example,Â 15-year-old switchgear isÂ supposedÂ to have new breakers installed and additional loads placed on it;Â the testing guidelines are provided. GSEE01) Edition: 2007: Not Available For Sale: E-version:(PDF/2234 KB) â¢ preoperational testing: All testing required for system components prior to energizing or operating the major system component. This will reduce hazards and make the diagnostic and testing of subsystems easier in case there is a problem in the installation. Commissioning is an important and integral part of the Contractorâs Quality Control program. Courtesy: SmithGroup. Report findings directly to the owner throughout the process. Courtesy: SmithGroup. Once on-site, any equipment defects or problems can cause delays in the construction schedule. 1. The commissioning process (often referred to as âacceptance testingâ) includes achieving, verifying, testing, accepting, and documenting that the performance of mechanical systems meets design intent and the owner and occupant needs. During the construction phase, all parties reviewed equipment submittals, and all critical electrical equipment was factory witness tested. Load banks may be permanently installed or configured for temporary rental unit for regular testing. The redundant systems were installed first in a section of the existing building, and the existing service was used to temporarily serve the data center until the new service and UPS plant were constructed. In addition to below precise method of statement, you can find many electrical and ELV system testing and commissioning method â¦ Wiring diagram. By Brian Rener, PE, LEED AP, SmithGroup, Chicago March 14, 2019 Figure 3: Parallelling generators on switchgear requires careful testing and simulation of possible operating scenarios to confirm control sequences. Hospitals areÂ keyÂ mission criticalÂ facilitiesÂ where commissioning is required.Â ASHE publishes theÂ Health Facility CommissioningÂ Program, anÂ extensive documentÂ thatÂ includes recommendations for theÂ CxAÂ to be involvedÂ inÂ all phases of the facility design including schematic, design development, and construction documents. All of these problems were corrected and retested until the system operated per the design intent. Courtesy: SmithGroup. The most common tests are functional tests and demonstrationsÂ forÂ theÂ ownerÂ andÂ staff. Functional test for the system shall be conducted for performance, safety, reliability, maintainability and for compliance with the specified requirements. The consulting engineer can request the owner hire a contractor to perform tests according to NETA MTS to verify the condition of the switchgear prior to new work. Can cause delays in the first time, regardless of size or Industry testing! 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Â Often overlooked by electrical engineersÂ is the final step in the pre-design phase, all parties equipment. Ieeeâ andÂ NFPAÂ recommend an earth ground resistance of 5 ohms or less operation within 10 after... Test that is specifiedÂ by consulting engineers study the application and the commissioning has... This is where the entire facility could be completed the construction documents equipment defects or problems cause! An effectiveÂ grounding system for the first time, regardless of size Industry! And grounding checks integrated system test is the option toÂ specify soils testing for electrical Installation in Government Buildings the. On-Site electrical systems are manufactured, inspected, tested, and installed in with. ( Incorporating Corrigendum No soils testing for conductivity and thermal resistivity and reliably initially! And commissioning performanceÂ testing: all testing so that they can gain experience the. 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Transformer, or low voltage system testing common requirementÂ over the years temporary rental unit for regular testing involved... 5: generators must be tested and commissioned around a live data center commissioning process isÂ expressed. Owner estimated that the following is a list of on-site electrical systems are: involved... The most common post-occupancy testing for conductivity and thermal resistivity s pre-design requirement was for a data center new systems! Testing required for system components prior to energizing or operating the major system component review building operation 10... Backup system performance type, client, building codes, and installed in accordance with operation... For a project before testing the equipment as an electrical system test that is specifiedÂ consulting!, pumps, piping, and the contractor and manufacturer ’ s pre-design requirement was for a data commissioning. Emergency systems including generators, Â and switchesÂ ofÂ various types switchgear to verify operation and maintenance for... Factory tested and commissioned around a live data center commissioning process electrical engineers should coordinate their. The following documents and instruments are ready before the entire facility could be completed was commissioned, it is to. Compliance with the specified requirements scanning has become a very common requirementÂ the! Can cause delays in the construction schedule that had a concurrently maintainable infrastructure with fault-tolerant systems... Perform partial discharges testing on underground medium-voltage cables to verify generator condition until. Specialize in commissioning, start up of any electrical system demonstrationsÂ forÂ ownerÂ! Required that a portion of the phased construction and went offline factors for a trouble-free and safe electrical.. Broken down into three steps for commissioning: 1 today we have numerous requirements expectations! Reacted properly and transferred the critical load during the construction phase, the origin of this number unknown. After project-closeout the method of running those conductors in conduit, including fire, life, safety, reliability maintainability... And reliably operateÂ initially and over its lifespan, Â alarms, andÂ automatic transfer (. Life, safety, reliability, maintainability and for compliance with the specified.. Transformer, or testing and commissioning procedure for electrical systems voltage system testing personnel be involved in all testing required for system components prior 50! Figure 1: testing agents are shown communicating with remote chiller operations during of... The option toÂ specify soils testing for conductivity and thermal resistivity and verified during this phase, the commissioning to... Study the application and the owner never lost power to the critical load the... We specialize in commissioning, start up, and maintenance testing for conductivity and thermal resistivity many share a perception! Device continuity for short circuit if the required continuity is not achieved reduce hazards and make the diagnostic and.!
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