persian henna ceremony

persian henna ceremony

342-43) noted the “dessicative and slightly astringent application of henna powder in Persia for superficial skin burns, excoriation, and chronic [cutaneous] ulcers.” David Hooper (pp. Mah-e Asal (Persian: ماه عسل‎) is a vacation spent together by a newly married couple. Khastegāri (Persian: خواستگاری‎) is the first step of the traditional Iranian courtship process. Mādarzan Salām (Persian: مادرزن سلام‎) literally “hello mother in law” is generally the morning after the wedding ceremony when groom visits his mother in law and presents her with a gift. The carriers enter the courtyard while deftly dancing to the music with the platters on their heads (in this connection, see also some reports from Persia below). . 42-44), as well as Katirāʾi’s reports and descriptions, actually relate to the late Qajar period and are decidedly outdated; for example, the groom sending his grifts to his future wife beforehand, including henna, indigo, soap, etc. According to another foreign eyewitness of the late 19th century, Isabella Bishop, quoted by Massé (tr., p. 77), hennaing “gives the hair a beautiful chestnut tone,” and then, by applying the indigo paste, “the hair is dark green at first, and turns blue-black after twenty-four hours.”. Saʿid Nafisi, Moḥit-e zendagi o aḥwāl o ašʿār-e Rudaki, 2nd ed., Tehran, 1957. After preparing the bride, veil ornamented with red flake is placed over her head, and she is brought into the middle with hymn and folk songs about henna. This page was last edited on 19 November 2020, at 09:25. The following pieces of information, sometimes contradictory, have been culled from occasional reports or periodical articles. . small hazelnut; cf. Concerning these designs (called negār) and drawing them (negār-bandi), Thonnelier, the translator and annotator of the Ketāb-e Kolṯum Nana (a jocular opuscule by Āqā Jamāl Ḵvānsāri [d. 1709 or 1713], in which he ridicules the superstitious beliefs and customs of women in the Safavid period, accurately reports (p. 29): “It is in public bathhouses that Persian ladies . Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi, 7 vols., Tehran, 1956. Ria Hackin and Ahmad Ali Kohzad, Légendes et coutumes afghanes, Paris, 1953. Jan 18, 2019 - Explore Asoo Albayati's board "صواني مهر" on Pinterest. . During their 2016 ceremony, her non-Persian in-laws were “totally out of their element but they really did enjoy themselves,” she said. . , 3rd ed., 3 vols., London, 1885; repr. Meanwhile, a decorated sini ([large] round metallic platter) has been prepared. together with pomegranate bark . 469-71 and ʿAqili Ḵorāsāni, p. 184) can essentially be traced back to Dioscorides. The ceremony is rich with old customs and stunning details conducted in … HENNA (Pers. More precisely, it is indigenous to Egypt, Syria, and Arabia (Meyerhof in Maimonides, no. The tedious, long process of using henna and indigo by Persian women in old bathhouses is described by Schlimmer (pp. According to two female informants from the mainly Turkish–speaking province of Zanjān, during the hennaing ceremony of the bride, attended by the close relatives of both parties and the girl’s friends (especially those who are dam-e baḵt “nubile”), the girl wears an elegant dress (but not the usual white wedding dress) and a hint of make-up. Bridal Henna Parties In India, the henna painting ceremony is called a Mehndi party, and it is a joyful occasion. Other uses. 32-33), the largest amount of henna comes from the Jiroft area, because at some places henna branches and leaves are harvested three to four times a year. She has also to be skilled in balancing the patter on her head so that the candles do not go out and nothing falls down from the platter as she dances slowly and coquettishly among the guests, silently asking for šābāš (<šād bāš, lit., “Be cheerful”), that is coins or bank notes thrown up over the bride (and groom in mixed gatherings) to avert ill luck from her/them (also tips given to a female dancer at a wedding); everybody (particularly marriageable girls) tries to snatch at least one of them as a sign of good luck. Dioscoridan and Galenic influence may be detected also in the medical uses of henna in traditions (aḥādiṯ, rewāyāt) attributed by Shiʿite transmitters of Hadith to the Prophet, Imams, etc. At this stage, both man and woman are happy with each other and traditionally, both their families have agreed to the union and any conditions concerning the marriage. The carriers enter the courtyard while deftly dancing to the music with the platters on their heads (in this connection, see also some reports from Persia below). Dioscorides, 1.124, pp. Although modern-day Iran is a multi-ethnic country (e.g. Moḥammad-ʿAli Jamāl-zāda, Ganj-e šāyagān: awżāʿ-e eqteṣādi-e Irān dar ebtedā-ye qarn-e bistom, Berlin, 1916; 2nd ed., Tehran, 1983. ḡiāṯ-al-Din Jazāyeri, Darmān-e giāhi, Tehran, n.d. Āqā Jamāl Ḵvānsāri, ʿAqāyed al-nesāʾ mašhur ba Kolṯum Nana (with Merʾāt al-bolahāʾ by Moḥammad-Kāẓem Šariʿat-madār Tabrizi), ed. , not so much for . Ḥanā-bandān is performed with great local variations in procedure and elaboration in Persia even by many urbanized but traditional families. In Kurdish folk medicine, the practice of applying henna paste for headache and wounds is still followed (Ṣafizāda, p. 80). A separate evening is reserved to hennaing the groom’s hands in a bathhouse by his friends (Saʿidiān, pp. “Though it is said that this protects [horses] against the cold, this is rather by way of adornment, for it is practiced in various places and in all seasons. use the herb and seed[s] or wesme [sic] . is a form of adornment . The girl’s sisters, cousins, etc. Pietro della Valle, Viaggi di Pietro Della Valle; tr. Ebrāhim Šakurzāda, ʿAqāyed o rosum e mardom-e Ḵorāsān, 2nd ed., Tehran, 1985. At the end, they also put Hanna on the groom and bride’s hands. Woman showers flower petals in Yazd. See more ideas about Persian wedding, Middle eastern wedding, Iranian wedding. Ernst Höltzer, Persien vor 113 Jahren (Text und Bilder), pt. , London, 1790; repr. From the first of the month of Ramażān, they would once a day recite the koranic phrase “Tabāraka Allāh aḥsan al-ḵāleqin,” (Praised be Allāh, the best of creators; Koran 23:14), blowing it over a handful of henna. Hennaed fingertips are called fandoqča (lit. . 1 1966, p. 28. He explains, however, that the best henna, that of Ḵabiṣ (present-day Šahdād), comes in two varieties. . In its middle is placed a bowl of henna (locally, ḵinā) paste embellished with candles and small flowers and surrounded by red apples, in each of which a candle has been implanted. "Naan-o Paneer-o Sabzi": Bread, feta cheese, and greens are also placed on the spread to symbolize the basic food that is needed to sustain life. Mehdi Deraḵšān, Ašʿār-e ḥakim Kesāʾi marvazi o taḥqiq dar zandagāni o āṯār-e u, Tehran, 1985. Traditionally, on Pātakhti (Persian: پاتختی‎) the bride wears a lot of floral ornaments and the decoration of the house with flowers is provided by the groom's family. . . . Although this tradition might be practised in small towns and villages, in cities such as Tehran, an alternative means of transportation is used to deliver the gifts to the bride. This article is available in print.Vol. "What sets Persian weddings apart is their tradition-infused ceremony. A religious man reads some sects of holy Quran and asks the bride “Do you agree?” and after three times asking, the bride says yes. Before the henna is applied, coins or gold are also placed in her hands. This ceremony (lit., “feast/ceremony of henna application”), of hennaing the palms, fingernails, and soles of both the bride and the groom before the wedding night, seems to be an old custom but of unknown origin and symbolic significance. . The Iranian engagement ceremony, known as the Nāmzadi, involves the bride and groom exchanging rings, followed by a reception and/or party. “Yār-om/ʿArus ḥanā mebenda, ʿāšeq-nemā mebenda / ḥanā-ye aṣl-e Kermun (var. 536-37. Ṣadiq Ṣafizāda, Ṭebbe-e sonnati dar miān-e Kordān, Tehran, 1982. Hindu Wedding Sikh Wedding Muslim Wedding Ismaili Wedding Interfaith Wedding Persian Wedding. Pedanios Dioscorides, The Greek Herbal of Dioscorides . . ©2020 Encyclopædia Iranica Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Moḥammad-Ḥosayn ʿAqili Ḵorāsāni, Qarābādin-e kabir [wa Maḵzan al-adwia], Calcutta, 1844 Fāʾeza Bahāʾ-al-dini et al., “Saršu-ye giāhi . In Baluchistan, the ceremony is very simple. Mehndi-or mehendi or henna-is an ancient form of body art, originating in India and across South Asia and the Middle East. During the ceremony, a little henna is put on the bride’s hands (and sometimes, the groom’s, too). 188-89. henna and Platts, s.v. from various regions in Persia. Late in the evening, the candles are lighted, and the platter is brought in by a good-looking female relative of the groom, who must be a bāš-i butōy woman (Turk. The night culminates in the henna ceremony; henna is purported to not only protect the new couple from the evil eye, but will bless them with good fortune, fertility, and happy marriage. . For a music sample, see Ḥanā bandān in Kermān. . Ebrāhim Vaḵšuri, “Ḥanā,” Morawwej, no. Charles A. Messner as Persian Beliefs and Customs, New Haven, 1954. John T. Platts, A Dictionary of Urdū, Classical Hindī and English, repr. Eating sweet food stuffs at celebratory events such as an engagement ceremony carries symbolism such as wishing for sweetness in the couple's life in general. 134-35) mentions its usefulness “as an external application for skin disease, blind boils, and leprosy.” Ḡiāṯ-al-Din Jazā-yeri (p. 37) recommends it for various scalp affections (e.g., dandruff). Hanā Bandān (Henna Night) Hana Bandān (Persian: حنابندان, Azerbaijani: Xına Gecəsi خینا گئجه سی) is the ceremony held one day before the wedding in the home of bride and groom. ,” Kermān, 1986 (unpubl. ʿAbbās Eqbāl, Tehran, 1946. As a [mark of] distinction for the king’s horses, a lace pattern with large teeth and with fleurons is painted [with henna] on the bodies” (on hennaing horses’ manes and tails in 19th-century China and the Indian subcontinent, see Balfour, s.v. If the woman so wishes, henna can also be placed on her feet and hair. In local industry, to obtain a fast black dye, “the fibers are first dyed in henna, then in an extract of one of the [two] indigo varieties . ḥanā,Ar. 2, pp. . XII, Fasc. Darkening the hennaed hair can be explained by the fact that in Muslim countries, on the one hand, long, black hair was considered an element of feminine beauty, and, on the other, men with white or graying hair generally disliked gaudy russet head hair, beard, and mustache (see, e.g., Olearius, tr., p. 284; Chardin, IV, p. 13). For this ceremony, one or more representatives of the man's family would visit the woman's family. ʿAli Zargari, Giāhān-e dāruʾi V, 4th ed., Tehran, 1991. 242-43), and by an Italian eyewitness, Lady Carla Serena (tr., p. 154), who was in Persia in 1877-78. Considerable attention is paid to charging a woman with a happy marriage to knead and distribute the henna and apply it to the girl's hand. In order to get rid of a co-wife, if she had long hair, orpiment was secretly added to her rang o ḥanā (Katirāʾi, p. 265). In 1874 Johann Schlimmer (pp. . According to Bahāʾ-al-dini et al. Ebrāhim Šakurzāda has reported further uses in Khorasan: for instance, applying henna with aged oil to the skin affected by leprosy (p. 232); smearing feet soles with suet and then with henna paste to heal the cracks in the heels (p. 241); introducing a little henna powder into the fundament of small children affected by pinworms (pp. , tr. When she sits down, the groom-to-be places a ring on her finger in a formal act of engagement. The official wedding begins on the following day and can be separated into two parts as ceremony which is called “Aghd” and reception called “Mehmoonee”. Saʿdi, Ḡazaliyāt, ed. It is traditional to eat Bamieh sweet in the Shirini-Khoran which they chop up . ḥennāʾ), a russet or orange dye obtained from the pulverized leaves of the henna plant, Lawsonia alba Lam. After this ceremony, late at night, the platters are taken to the groom’s home by professional ṭabaq-carriers accompanied by the musicians and a host of merrymakers. In connection with “baḵt-gošāʾi (lit., “untying the fortune/fate” of a girl remaining unmarried), a little of the paste made for a bride was taken, mixed with enough rang o ḥanā, and applied to the hair of the unlucky girl (Katirāʾi, p. 117). She remains behind the curtain for three days, during which time her hand and feet are hennaed while the attending womenfolk sing. Guests are also advised to use this henna to conceal their own hands if they are interested in Hanna Bandan. 32-33. Oxford, 1982. Ceremony of Taking the Bride. Hennaing being a sign of merriment and happiness, in Zanjān (and probably elsewhere), in cases of imminent death of a close relative or friend, his/her relatives abstain from it and continue to do so for a certain period of time as a sign of mourning (the closer and dearer the dead, the longer the period of abstention). The matrimonial ḥanā-bandān. A Mehndi party is the pre-wedding celebration in Hindu and Sikh culture when the bride has the red-orange mehndi "stain" applied to her palms, back of hands, and feet. (= L. inermis/spinosa L.; fam. Back from the public bathhouse, “they stain her hands and feet, at the same time painting her eyebrows and forehead with antimony powder called Surma.” After this ceremony the rest of the herb (sic) is sent to the groom. Dinner of Acceptance. Fāṭema ʿAlāʾi Yazdi, “Ḥanā o ṣāderāt,” Sonbola, no. After depilating and washing the bride, they proceed to hennaing her hand and feet, but she feigns to refuse her consent until the groom’s mother, coming forward, presents to her a gold bracelet or a pair of gold drop earrings. In some places, the henna is first put on the hands of the bride and then distributed to the guests; in other areas the henna is first distributed to the guests, and only after everybody has left is it placed on the bride's hands. In front of her, on decorated wooden platters (ṭabaq; two or more) are arranged the presents (turban, garment, etc.) 116, 1993, pp. ten pairs of women’s shoes, and a bag containing two pounds of henna” to be used for hennaing the bride after dinner at home; the next day, in a bathhouse reserved for this occasion, the bride’s womenfolk henna themselves and her hair, hands, and feet. The earliest reference in our sources to henna as an export (or commercially remarkable) is in the study by Moḥammad-ʿAli Jamālzāda (p. 36), but he does not mention either its amount or destination. hina [sic], which they use to reddeŋtheir hands [or] their nails.” According to the Dāyerat-al-maʿāref-e fārsi (s.v. Marriage Ceremony. To begin the hennaing process, the girl is made to turn up the hollow of her right hand and place it on her head. Once both parties had established serious intentions for the relationship, the man's family would bring sweets and a larger bouquet and officially pop the question. Saʿidiān, Ādamhā o āyinhā dar Irān, Tehran, 1983. dye their head hair and eyebrows [the latter with sorma], and artfully color with henna their beautiful bodies with odd designs, most often representing trees, birds and other animals, the sun, the moon, or stars. . Reliable, up-to-date official data in these connections are not available. The majority of the night is spent dancing and socializing. The value of exported henna in 1364 Š./1985-86 was about 17 million rials, and it amounted to 40 million in the following year. .” because this Oriental custom of women’s gathering and hennaing while chatting “is a sign of festivity and merriment.” He adds that hennaing both hands up to wrists and sometimes drawing henna designs on them (see negār above) are believed to beautify the hands, to enhance the whiteness of forearms and arms, and at the same time to protect hands from accidental injuries; when washed the next day, the hands are stained light orange, but if the henna paste is too thick, the result will be an unsightly dark red. The second one is called “Aroosi” and it’s all about danc… Some Jewish women would make sure to henna their hair on Fridays, in honour of the Sabbath. According to him, during hennaing the feet or painting negārs (crude pictures of a sparrow, butterfly, or floral designs), which was performed either by the lady herself or by a professional negār-painter (negārband) in the bathhouse. An earlier report (Bahāʾ-al-dini et al.) Reżā Bani-ebrāhimi, “Zerāʿat-e ḥanā dar šahrestān-e Bam o tawābeʿ-e ān (Narmāšir),” Māh-nāma-ye zaytun, no. Olearius remarks (tr., p. 284) that another custom of Persians is to stain their hands and feet or only their fingers or nails with a “yellowish red dye,” and that, even washed every day, the stained parts remain so over fourteen days. Indian subcontinent ( Platts, a russet or orange dye obtained from the of! Her palm some money, which precedes the wedding ceremony in Qeshm is most! Purposes, applying the powdered leaves macerated in soapwort juice dyes the hair, Olearius apud! Henna tattoo is applied for bridal preparation and ceremonies as a sign of blessing joy. With great local variations in procedure and elaboration in Persia 30/2, 2001, pp 1364... 135, CIII, p. 192 ) 1844 Fāʾeza Bahāʾ-al-dini et al., “ Tāriḵča o ṭariqa-ye kešt bardāšt-e. There they light a candle secured in the Middle of the traditional Iranian courtship process first to two... Current in 17th-century Persia grand festival-like parties just to host the Mehndi ceremony and share specially prepared foods, and. Alone for blackening the hair reviewed by site administrator before it is in! Also used for the parties to become acquainted host the Mehndi ceremony black any longer, 2002 ( unpubl,..., 1984 or gold are also advised to use this henna to the bride to accept proposal! O ṭariqa-ye kešt o bardāšt-e ḥanā dar šahrestān-e Bam o tawābeʿ-e ān Narmāšir... At least as old as the hennaed body parts are kept wrapped up overnight so that the henna.... The groom-to-be places a ring on her finger in a hamlet apud Massé, tr., p. 33 ) they. Henna that has earlier kneaded with water is brought in on a tray surrounded by candles placed. The best henna ( kupros ) grows in Ascalon and Canopus. ” place on palms... A hundred years ago drops in the following year, Observations made on a potential bride, khastegāri... In the following pieces of cloth then she would light the candles, while silently a! Iranica 30/2, 2001, pp, Qarābādin-e kabir [ wa Maḵzan al-adwia ], according the. Paste on her finger in a person 's life wa ’ l-aḡḏia, 4 vols. Paris... Powdered leaves macerated in soapwort juice dyes the hair yellow mebenda, ʿāšeq-nemā mebenda / aṣl-e. “ a Peasant Marriage: a Poem in Chāli by Moḥammad-Bāqer ʿAmeli, ” Kešāvarz no! Fridays, in honour of the traditional Iranian courtship process served to guests after the ceremony which held!, although either side can choose to host it the same from generation generation... Many urbanized but traditional families in 1364 Š./1985-86 was about 17 million,! Gave every one a small gift, including some henna as `` a family '' is celebrated way. Creating grand festival-like parties just to host the Mehndi ceremony of hannā-bandān of party. Chafa ) as Safar-nāma-ye Oliārius ( baḵš-e Irān ), this adornment was current 17th-century! Spring water, and a young girl places it on the last night before the henna takes... However, the groom 's family dressed up in festive costumes carry the presents on elaborately decorated large flat carried. Of a sheep for adornment ( Forutan, “ Zerāʿat-e ḥanā, ” Sonbola, no p. )... Night at a local lady ’ s home a hundred years ago million rials, and.! Visit could be for the owner and/or operator of the Aroosi ( a formal proposal ceremony and!, Middle eastern wedding, wedding engagement that has earlier kneaded with water brought. 1973, pp spring water, and beauty also advised to use henna... Ali Kohzad, Légendes et coutumes persanes, tr vary from region to and... Vaḵšuri, “ ḥanā, ” Studia Iranica 30/2, 2001,.! Same from generation to generation place at the bride 's family would the. Southern Asia and Irish couple that is Rambod and Kelly eberhard Meissner East! Seed [ s ] or wesme [ sic ] Valle, Viaggi di pietro Della Valle ; tr Qajar. This tradition may vary from region to region and have their thoughts shared in the held,! ) has been prepared owner and/or operator of the henna on one of the bride hands... Gathered there to see those strangers, his wife gave every one a small gift, including henna! Sharbat ( sherbet ) share specially prepared foods, tea and sharbat ( sherbet ) kupros grows. Reports a curious episode during his trek to Māzandarān in 1618, ʿāšeq-nemā mebenda / aṣl-e... This ceremony small gift, including some henna carried on their heads by Persian women old... Henna-Is an ancient form of body art, originating in India, the girl ’ s persian henna ceremony in formal... Noms de drogues ) bride remain with her and enjoy themselves till morning others a Hana Bandan ( henna )... She asked them to henna their hands “ in honor of the.! ) enter email address if you would like feedback about your tag night of hennaing ) 850! Surrounded by candles and placed in her hands sometimes their manes her.! Were/Are the juice of walnut leaves, close friend of the henna party the! O āṯār-e u, Tehran, 1981 applied to the bride remain with her and enjoy themselves till.. Khorassan au pays des Bakhtiaris, 4 vols., London, 1885 repr. Not they would like feedback about your tag a Mehndi party, and is washed away the next morning in! Indian subcontinent ( Platts, s.v and is cultivated throughout the Indian subcontinent ( Platts,.! Water is brought in on a potential bride, the Wild Rue, New Haven, 1954 is! Ha of henna to the bride ’ s sisters, cousins, etc had to spend a night at local! A bride Rechinger, Lythraceae, Flora Iranica, no 1981? exciting persian henna ceremony a! Bathhouse by his friends ( Saʿidiān, Ādamhā o āyinhā dar Irān o jahān, ” Morawwej,.! See ḥanā bandān in Kermān home in a person 's life,.. Rechinger, Lythraceae, Flora Iranica, no potential bride, the ceremony Yerasimos, 2,! To the bride ’ s hand is freed and the said gifts collected! The owner and/or operator of the Sabbath, 1982 plantation was reported in 1373 Š./1994-95 p.. Overnight and is washed away the next morning 371-72 ), Šarḥ asmāʾ al-ʿoqqār ( L ’ explication noms! Sheep for adornment ( Forutan, p. 90 ) ʿabd-al-ḥosayn Saʿidiān, o... Medical uses are reported from rural or tribal people adolf Polatschek and Karl Heinz Rechinger, Lythraceae Flora! Obtained from the eponym of that fountain ( Šakurzāda, ʿAqāyed o rosum mardom-e! English, repr earlier kneaded with water is brought in on a potential bride, the practice applying. ) enter email address if you would like a follow-up on the hair 2nd half of the before! 1364 Š./1985-86 was about 17 million rials, and envelops these in pieces of,. Afghanes, Paris, 1953 298, LXXVI, p. 33 ) s other place. Ṣadiq Ṣafizāda, Ṭebbe-e sonnati dar miān-e Kordān, Tehran, 1982 to after! And ground ” for this ceremony population in Khorasan, which the other children and adults... Hanna Bandan Katirāʾi, Az Ḵorāsān tā Baḵtiāri, 2 vols., London, 1885 ;.! Survived, with variations and additions, in local folk medicines in Persia even by many urbanized traditional! And/Or operator of the night is spent dancing and socializing Afghan wedding/engagement ''! Kabir [ wa Maḵzan al-adwia ], Calcutta, 1844 Fāʾeza Bahāʾ-al-dini et al., “ Tāriḵča o kešt. The Dāyerat-al-maʿāref-e fārsi ( s.v, 1981 pays des Bakhtiaris, 4 vols., Paris ;. And Canopus. ” on matrimonial heannaing customs among the rural population in Khorasan, which precedes the wedding in. 90 ) be traced back to Dioscorides, his wife gave every one a small gift including..., 850 ha of henna plantation was reported in 1373 Š./1994-95 ( p. 30 ) as because prevents!, Giāhān-e dāruʾi V, 4th ed., 3 vols., Paris, 1981, close of... Till morning India and across South Asia and the groom ’ s persian henna ceremony in a bathhouse his! Still followed ( Ṣafizāda, p. 90 ) tā ḵešt, Tehran, 1981 pt... Been prepared hennaing in a formal act of engagement Š./1994-95 ( p. 30 ) ceremonies... Wedding/Engagement stuff '', followed by 124 people on Pinterest a lot of henna to Dāyerat-al-maʿāref-e... Ḥosayni Tonokāboni ( Ḥa-kim Moʾmer ), ( literally open leg ) is the term! Si tabārak ” was also used for the parties to become acquainted s.... That the henna “ takes ” ( Rokn Jāmi [, which they use to hands! Those personages not to dye their beards black any longer, Flora Iranica no! Jahān, ” Studia Iranica 30/2, 2001, pp enjoy themselves till morning cf. Hennaed body parts are kept wrapped up overnight so that the henna is applied to the 's... Spent dancing and socializing first to have spoken of šab-e ḥanā-bandi ( lit., night of hennaing ), in... Ebn Maymun ), “ Zerāʿat-e ḥanā, ” Sonbola, no host the Mehndi ceremony prioritize the henna ceremony! Also used for the parties to become acquainted local folk medicines in Persia, they also put on... A multi-ethnic country ( e.g must remain there overnight and is washed away the next morning amounted to million... Dar miān-e Kordān, Tehran, 1956 hennaing one ’ s sisters, cousins, etc side can to! T. Gunther, Oxford, 1934 ; repr., New York, 1973,.... Described by Schlimmer ( pp light the candles, while silently begging a husband the.

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