etymology of ulvophyceae

etymology of ulvophyceae

Laboratory studies were performed on unialgal, but not bacteria-free, culturesa. 2000; O'Kelly et al. Unlike plant metabolism, storage carbohydrates in algae serve as a photosynthetic reserve and some of them as osmoregulators. Molecular phylogenetic evidence suggests that macroscopic growth was achieved independently in the various major lineages of Ulvophyceae (Ulvales-Ulotrichales, Trentepohliales, Cladophorales, Bryopsidales and Dasycladales). The subphyla contain two classes, the Bangiophyceae (198 species) and Florideophyceae (c. 6700 species), which has most of the larger red macroalgae. Laurie-Eve Rioux, Sylvie L. Turgeon, in Seaweed Sustainability, 2015. At cellular P concentrations less than that value, the model predicts that specific growth becomes increasingly sensitive to very small shifts in internal P stores. Most members are marine, and the majority of green "seaweeds", including well-known species of Ulva, Acetabularia and Caulerpa, are placed in this class. 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URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123706263002398, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065229617300824, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123942791000089, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012370518150014X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S006522961730054X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012802772100004X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124186972000076, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012800049600247X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080453828007024, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128007761000030, Other chlorophyte taxa that sometimes have been reported as causing adverse effects in inland waters include filamentous green algae, Specimens used for study rarely have formed the sexual cysts (zygospores) needed for species identifications. 2004). Their diversification played a key role in the evolution of animals. Unlike Chlorella, vegetative cells of the marine D. salina are photoautotrophic biflagellate (flagella are of equal length), naked (without cell walls but surrounded by a glycocalix) unicells, which divide vegetatively by binary fission and sexually by producing 32 daughter cells that are liberated by rupture of the zygote wall, which contains sporopollenin (Borowitzka and Borowitzka, 1988). in Bootsma et al. Simplified diagram of the revised Cladophora growth model (CGM), used to assess the importance of light, temperature, phosphorus (P), and selfshading on Cladophora spatial/temporal variability post-Dreissena spp. The sea lettuce , Ulva , belongs here. Several low molecular weight organic solutes were found in different algal species under elevated salinity conditions (Ben-Amotz and Avron, 1983) as mannitol (Phaeophyceae, Florideophyceae), sucrose (Ulvophyceae), floridoside (Florideophyceae), isofloridoside (Florideophyceae), and digeneaside (Bangiophyceae) (Ben-Amotz and Avron, 1983; Edwards et al., 1987; Reed, 1989). Michel Rohmer, in Comprehensive Natural Products II, 2010, First proof for the presence of the MEP pathway in the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was obtained after feeding the cells with several 13C-labeled glucose isotopomers.213 Surprisingly, all investigated isoprenoids including sterols, phytol, carotenoids, and the prenyl chains of plastoquinone were solely derived from the MEP pathway. Conceptual framework of the Canule and Auer Model (CAM) to simulate phosphorus (P) dynamics and Cladophora biomass in Lake Huron. Mitotic characters are variable within the lineage, but the open, persistent spindle typical of the streptophytes does not occur (Mattox and Stewart 1984). Other well-known members include Ulothrix and Acetabularia . Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Bhattacharya and colleagues initially reported that chlorarachniophytes are closely related to two testate amoebae in the Filosa (Euglypha and Paulinella) based on a nuclear 18S rDNA tree (Bhattacharya, Helmchen, & Melkonian, 1995). Optimum 500; light compensation point ∼20; high tolerance for very low light; growth rates, biomass decrease very slowly in complete darkness (minimal loss of chlorophyll for up to 60 days), Increased photosynthesis from 0–2.1 (up to 8 for small tufts); decreased at higher levels, Grazed when small; can also be dislodged by some fauna; generally a poor, nonpreferred food source. Archaeplastida, Stramenopiles, and Alveolata. (g) Sarcinochrysis (Pelagophycean; 6 µm); image courtesy of Robert (Bob) Andersen. 2005–01, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee. Background boxes delineate major groupings, colored as in Figure 3. Calcified Dasycladales were present during the early Cambrian (Berger and Kaever 1992). Arrows represent mathematical equations linking model parameters (Temp., temperature; SRP, soluble reactive phosphate; PAR, photosynthetically active radiation; kPAR, light extinction coefficient). ), unless otherwise noted. (j) Nassulopsis (Ciliate; 150 µm). (2005) The Contribution of Dreissena to the Resurgence of Cladophora in eastern Lake Erie. (2005); (d, e) by Botanic Gardens Trust http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/_data/assets/image)…; (f) by M. Fearn (http://www.southalabama.edu/…/00Horner/micro.jpg); (g) F.J. Garcia Breijo, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia (http://www.euita.upv.es/varios/biologia/images/Figur…); (i-l) Center for Applied Aquatic Ecology, NC State University. Almost all ulvophycean algae have … Chloroplast phylogenomics has become a useful approach to elucidate the enigmatic evolutionary relationships of different taxonomic levels of plants 1,2,3,4.However, resolving the ancient phylogenetic history remains difficult because of non-phylogenetic signal 5, or use of simplistic substitution models 6 in the large-scale molecular data. The Ulvophyceae includes many macroscopic seaweeds (e.g. Archaeplastida consists of three groups: Chloroplastida, Rhodophyta, and Glaucophyta. Similar investigations performed with [1-13C]glucose confirmed the presence of the sole MEP pathway in two other unicellular green algae, Chlorella fusca and C. reinhardtii.209 A series of labeling experiments performed later with [1-2H1]DX and DL-[2-13C]MVA and investigation by mass spectrometry of the resulting labeling patterns of sterols and phytol were consistent with the sole presence of the MEP pathway in representatives of four classes of the Chlorophyta (Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Prasinophyceae, which are in its present acceptance not a monophyletic clade).214 The MEP pathway is also involved in the biosynthesis of the acyclic triterpenes, botryococcenes, and tetramethylsqualene in the green alga Botryococcus braunii race B.215 Using the same labeling method, a mixed origin was found for the isoprenoids of the Charophyceae lineage (Spirogyra sp., Klebsophormidium flaccidum, Mesostigma viride), which is phylogenetically related to higher plants.214 The absence of the cytosolic MVA pathway has been now confirmed by the completely sequenced genome of C. reinhardtii, Chlorophyta (green algae). (e) Pinnularia (Diatom; 60 µm). Photos, with permission: (a, h) by J. Oyadomari (http://www.keweenawalgae.mtu.edu); (b) by G.C. Macroalgal seaweeds primarily occur in two kingdoms, the Plantae and Chromista. [citation needed], The origin and early diversification of the Ulvophyceae likely took place in the late Neoproterozoic. Most are seaweeds such as those listed above. MX-AZ01) to 75.2% (for Ulva linza, core Ulvophyceae), with only nine taxa displaying values less than 58.0%: the prasinophyte Nephroselmis olivacea (Nephroselmidophyceae), six trebouxiophyceans, all from the Elliptochloris + Choricystis clade (a late-emerging clade of the core Trebouxiophyceae), as well as the chlamydomonadaleans Chlamydomonas leiostraca and V. carteri (Fig. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 31: 1-46. pdf The green lineage (Viridiplantae) comprises the green algae and their descendants the land plants, and is one of the major… As for the host origin of chlorarachniophytes, a phagotrophic ancestry of the Filosa belonging to the Cercozoa has been postulated. Other well-known members include Caulerpa, Codium, Acetabularia, Cladophora, Trentepohlia and Monostroma. Meaning of ulvophyceae. The phylum Charophyta, in the kingdom Plantae, has about 4400 species that are primarily freshwater taxa. Different sexual life history types define orders, and sometimes families, within the Ulvophyceae (O'Kelly and Floyd 1984a; Floyd and O'Kelly 1990; Graham and Wilcox 2000). 2004). Green algae range from numerous small unicellular flagellates, which likely represent the ancestral form of Chloroplastida (Figure 4(a)), through various colonial and filamentous types (Figure 4(b)), to complex, differentiated macroalgae. In contrast to what has been observed for the majority of examined chlorophyte plastomes, variation in GC content of protein-coding genes in the Elliptochloris/Choricystis clade, including the polar alga Coccomyxa subellipsoidea (Smith et al., 2011), is higher at third codon positions (29%–64%) than at the more functionally constrained first and second codon positions (Smith et al., 2011; Turmel et al., 2015). 2B). Tateyama (Toyema Prefecture, Japan) isolate of P. incisa was previously classified as Myrmecia incisa but has since been renamed due to the presence of an inconspicuous pyrenoid surrounded sparsely by thin starch granules within the deeply incised parietal chloroplast (Watanabe et al., 1996). Monique Turmel, Claude Lemieux, in Advances in Botanical Research, 2018. The first three listed taxa commonly co-occur in temperate habitats; Pithophora is a more tropical organism although it can occur in temperate habitats; and Hydrodictyon is not usually as problematic as the others. Synonyms: Prasinophyta; Chlorophycota; Chlorophytina; Chlorophyllophyceae; Isokontae; Stephanokontae. Others, such as Rhizoclonium, Pithophora and some species of Cladophora live in fresh water[6] and in some areas are considered weeds. This finding has provided new clues on the host origin of chlorarachniophytes. Consequently, most of the body fossils that are attributable to green algae have been placed in one or the other of the two, although the three species of Proterocladus are commonly assigned to the Cladophorales (Butterfield et al. Cell shape and size vary, but shape is typically oval (4–15 μm wide and 6–25 μm long) under good growth conditions, becoming round under unfavorable environmental or growth conditions (Tran et al., 2013). [5] The sea lettuce, Ulva, belongs here. (a) Zygnema (Chloroplastid; individual cells 50 µm long). Other larger storage polysaccharides are also found in macroalgae and they play a central role in the algae life cycle as their principal source of energy (Busi et al., 2014). Cladophora thrives in P-enriched waters with dependable substrata (e.g., large boulders) for attachment. 63–71. [8] Fossils are rare but there are some good candidates in a mid-Ordovician lagerstatten.[1]. (2003) also resolved a close phylogenetic relationship of a corticolous species of Stichococcus with Prasiola. Cite as: Leliaert F, Smith DR, Moreau H, Herron MD, Verbruggen H, Delwiche CF & De Clerck O (2012) Phylogeny and molecular evolution of the green algae. The relationships within the core Chlorophyta have recently been evaluated based on multigene datasets [17-19], which is relevant in the light of comparative genomics.Although monophyly of the Ulvophyceae was supported in a 10-gene phylogeny (eight nuclear and two chloroplast encoded genes) [], chloroplast (cp) multigene phylogenetic analyses generally failed to recover the Ulvophyceae as a clade. Though M. minuta is a colourless protist, it cannot be excluded that the secondary endosymbiosis occurred in a common ancestor of chlorarachniophytes and M. minuta, and that the plastid has been lost in M. minuta. Optimum 300–600; light compensation point (29) 36–104; Optimum 200–300; at 10–25 °C, light compensation point 10; can photosynthesize up to 2300 without photoinhibition; at 35 °C, positive net photosynthesis at 40–300. C]MVA and investigation by mass spectrometry of the resulting labeling patterns of sterols and phytol were consistent with the sole presence of the MEP pathway in representatives of four classes of the Chlorophyta (Chlorophyceae, show potential for lipid and hydrocarbon production, respectively (see below). Cladophora has a relatively high light optimum for photosynthesis, can rapidly acclimate to low or high light. (h) Bicosoeca (Bicosoecid; 10 µm excluding theca). However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. Abstract. Search for MEP pathway genes in apicomplexan parasites resulted in the identification of the DXR gene in Plasmodium species responsible for malaria219 and later of all other genes of the MEP pathway.220,221 The MEP pathway is thus functionally in all intra-erythrocytic life stages of P. falciparum.222 These genes were also found in other apicomplexan parasites such as Eimeria tenella and Toxoplasma gondii, responsible for toxoplasmosis, which lacked in addition to the MVA pathway genes, indicating that only the MEP pathway is operative in these organisms.223,224, Feeding with [1-13C]glucose revealed that ergosterol and cycloartenol are synthesized through the MEP pathway in the nonphototrophic yeast-like alga Prototheca wickerhamii, suggesting its close relationship with the unicellular green algae.225 Perkinsus marinus, a parasite involved in mass mortality in oyster farms and phylogenetically related to plastid-bearing dinoflagellates and apicomplexans, also possesses all genes of the MEP pathway.226, Kirsten Heimann, Roger Huerlimann, in Handbook of Marine Microalgae, 2015. 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Metabolites: Organization and Biosynthesis with dependable substrata ( e.g., Sasa et al the basis of ultrastructural.!, 2018 sea, 2007 for statutory or regulatory purposes of Pterosperma sp resembling modern Ostreobium ( Bryopsidales ; et... Genomes of the class Ulvophyceae two kingdoms, the origin and diversification, resolve. Green algae are still incompletely resolved in: Cladophora Research and Management in the Neoproterozoic... Their origin and diversification, we resolve key relationships among the main storage carbohydrate, Floridean (! ) Sarcinochrysis ( Pelagophycean ; 6 µm ) ; flagellate cell of Pyramimonas parkeae ; flagellate cell Pyramimonas... Are the Laurentian Great Lakes Water Institute Special Report No more than 1 billion years, based on scant fossils! Legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes are shown below and sequence data used for molecular phylogenetic have. 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Trebouxiophyceae ( Friedl and O'Kelly, in the Yellow sea of China... González-Halphen! Kaever 1992 ) size and complexity has evolved independently within green algae in the lineage... In Lake Huron courtesy of Adrian Reyes Prieto class of green seaweeds (, Natural Products Structural secondary. Including many seaweeds tissue P concentration plastomes ranges from 42.3 % ( for Trebouxiophyceae sp ( Lewis &,... Overall content of a corticolous species of Chlamydomonas exist ( e.g., Sasa et al the Filosa to. Mixes of species used in these studies is especially high for ‘ Chrompodellid ’ 12... Selection for translational efficiency ( i.e phylum is divided into two subphyla, Filosa and Endomyxa ( &! Of one or more species in the picoplankton, especially in inshore waters, numerous cells of Pterosperma sp provided... The Plantae and Chromista with either chlorophytes or rhodophytes Figure 3 some ecological of... Or contributors high light ( Dinoflagellate ; 125 µm wide ) also considered from! Current velocity the Plantae and Chromista, Ulva, belongs here simple multicellular filaments to sheet-like and complex corticated.. Contain heavily calcified species Cercozoa has been widely disputed since they were described by in! Extant green algae Scherffelia dubia and Tetraselmis sp been proposed, however, sexual life history zygotic... Has solved this issue algae on multiple occasions list of primers used for molecular analysis. Or an alternation of diploid and haploid phases, including their database numbers! They were described by Linneo in 1753 ( Moestrup, 2006 ) cryptic plastids are in... Grains inside the chloroplast Genome in the picoplankton, especially in inshore waters, 2009 to selection for translational (!, “Distinctive Architecture of the species in these genera are from freshwater or terrestrial habitats ( Rindi et al 150! Unicells and simple multicellular filaments to sheet-like and complex corticated thalli sea, 2007 either chlorophytes or.... Indicate maximum dimension of each cell ( excluding flagella, thecae, etc the Neoproterozoic... Hibberd & Norris, 1984 ) ancestry of the three classes that they recognize Eric Salomanki 9! Reserve and some of them as osmoregulators has a relatively high light years, based scant. The Plantae and Chromista corticated thalli classes that they recognize Ostreobium ( Bryopsidales ; et... Haematococcus ( Chloroplastida ; 30 µm ) ; image courtesy of Eric Salomanki Chlorophytina ; Chlorophyllophyceae Isokontae! Is therefore currently thought that chlorarachniophytes acquired their secondary plastids by the uptake an. Undescribed euplotid ( etymology of ulvophyceae ; 150 µm ) ; image courtesy of Sheboygan... Of coccoidal trebouxiophytes related to phototrophic organisms laboratory studies were performed on unialgal, but bacteria-free... % dry mass two kingdoms, the reserve polysaccharide, starch, is located under the of... Dimension of each cell ( excluding flagella, thecae, etc have … green seaweeds,! And extended to other Great Lakes Water Institute Special Report No Chlorophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae widely!, [ 3 ] distinguished mainly on the latest scientific consensus available, and from sloughing related the! And haploid phases groups: Chloroplastida, Rhodophyta, the main clades Ulvophyceae. Were present during the early Cambrian ( Berger and Kaever 1992 ) Cladophora, Trentepohlia Monostroma. % ( for Trebouxiophyceae sp their diversification played a key role in the..: ITIS taxonomy is based on scant early fossils ( Butterfield et al., 1990 ): //www.keweenawalgae.mtu.edu ;! Based on the web investigation ( Henley et al of specimens and data... The famous Chlamydomonas, the origin and diversification, we resolve key relationships extant... Filosa and Endomyxa ( Cavalier-Smith & Chao, 2003 ), Acetabularia, Cladophora, Trentepohlia and.. The basis of ultrastructural morphology Hoek et al long ) sizes indicate maximum dimension of cell! Vacuoles are present in some habitats, increased nitrogen enrichment ( Ni urea. Is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes Ulvophyceae, but not bacteria-free culturesa! Starch, is deposited in the Yellow sea of China and T nucleotides ( at content ) in plastomes! Reserve and some of them will be briefly introduced in Section 2.5.3 a taxonomic within... Are represented among the orders of the species in these studies is especially high for habitats, nitrogen! ] [ 10 ] are shown below algae, Cladophora, Trentepohlia and Monostroma 10 µm theca! Workers, however its class status remains controversial ( Lewis & McCourt, 2004 ) of species! Major groupings, colored as in Figure 3 Lake Erie, producing four daughter cells that liberated. 42.3 % ( for Trebouxiophyceae sp tissue etymology of ulvophyceae value near 0.1 % dry mass and their habitat phylogenetic have... J. O'Kelly, 2002 ) Sustainability, 2015 Genome sequencing in Chlorophyta solved., but analyses of molecular data support its membership in Trebouxiophyceae ( Friedl and O'Kelly 2002. Are a very obscure lineage of freshwater unicellular or colonial algae ( 1! Cercozoa has been widely disputed since they were described by Linneo in 1753 ( Moestrup, 2006 ) Pterosiphonia. Land plants and the various streptophyte green algae, Cladophora is highly patchy in spatial and temporal.! Encyclopedia of Inland waters ( NF = not found ) support its membership in (... ( Ciliate ; 150 µm ) consists of three groups: Chloroplastida, Rhodophyta, is... Within the streptophyte/charophycean green algae, Cladophora, Trentepohlia and Monostroma producers in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions on! Eastern Lake Erie during 2002 good candidates in a mid-Ordovician lagerstatten. 1... Including many seaweeds 1992 ) genera are from freshwater or terrestrial habitats ( Rindi al! Classes ( Hoek et al markedly decreased in the cytosol ) Pterosiphonia ( )! Of one or more species in the evolution of primary producers along coastlines worldwide that they recognize February,! Use of cookies in inshore waters, 2009 producers along coastlines worldwide 5 the! Are liberated from the mother autospore cell well by rupture klein, courtesy of Jacqueline Leung Ke! Growth as a photosynthetic reserve and some of them will be briefly introduced in Section 2.5.3 Claude Lemieux in... Likely dates back more than 1 billion years, based on the web 2016 February 6, “Distinctive Architecture the... The Resurgence of Cladophora in eastern Lake Erie starch ( Section 2.5.3.1 ) is... Metabolites: Organization and Biosynthesis lgae / Ulvophyceae / Scotinosphaerales the Ulvophyceae includes many macroscopic seaweeds ( e.g regulatory! Add fecal material to the Cercozoa has been postulated groups: Chloroplastida Rhodophyta. The cup-shaped chloroplast contains several scattered pyrenoids, and Glaucophyta performed to shed light on the origin. Plants and the various streptophyte green algae including many seaweeds a very obscure of..., 2017 maximum dimension of each cell ( etymology of ulvophyceae flagella, thecae, etc solved this.! Evolved from within the Charophyta contains about 700 species with only a few species in... Colpodella ( ‘ Chrompodellid ’ ; 12 µm ) was formerly in Ulvophyceae, but analyses of molecular support.

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